Bernard Mandeville

Bernard Mandeville was born in Rotterdam in 1670 and gained his doctorate in philosophy and medicine in Leiden. Exiled from his native city in 1693 after a political conflict, he settled in London as a psychiatrist.


He described the purge of Rotterdam in the book that established him as an international figure: Free Thoughts on Religion, the Church and National Happiness(1720). By the time of his death in 1733 Mandeville had written more than thirty works, making him one of the most successful writers of his time.

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